Targu Mures is situated at the encounter of three geographical zones: the Transylvania Plain, the Mures Valley and the Niraj Valley. The territory of the city was, since ancient times, the cradle of some human settlements. Endless material proof was found here and proves the presence of Neolithic cultures and then those from the bronze and the iron ages.
The archeological diggings revealed roman vestiges in the surroundings of the city. The settlement itself has asserted from the beginning of his history as a local fair, a quality which determined his fait during the centuries.
This quality also reflects in the historical areas of Targu Mures. The first historical document, dating from the year 1300, shows us the town with a different name ( a name was Forum Siculorum, then in 1332 as Novum Forum Siculorum). In 1599 Michael the Brave has entitled our Zekelyvasarhely oppidi, this name was used until the 29th of April 1616, when Bethlen Gabor, the ruler of Transylvania has increased the settlement at the ranking of free city, changing also his official name in Marosvasarhely, the name was given by different merchants, after their nationality: Targu Mures- by Romanians, Marosvasarhely- by Hungarians, Neumarkt am Mieresch- by Germans, Agropolis- by Greeks.
The urbanization process of the city started at the end of the 15th century. Through the act of privilege, given by Matei Corvin, the king of Hungary in 1482, the city wins the right to organize annually three big fairs. Also in this century the guild handcrafts are evolving, which in 1493 their privileges are recognized, in 1490 the reconstruction, in Gothic style, of the fortress church is finished. The prestige of the city was owing to the fact that it was the residence of Fortress Mures.
In 1595 the inhabitants from Targu Mures are offering help to Michael the Brave in the fights with the Turks. Since the 16th century the city is recognized as an important cultural and school center, the first school was built in 1492.
A school was active in the precinct of the French monastery, then in 1556, after the religious reform a school and then a college of the Calvinist Church. In 1786 the first typography is established here. In 1791, Aranka Gyorgy, a high qualified person, has set up a Linguistic Society. In 1794, Teleki Samuel, with 60.000 volumes puts the basis of the documentary library, which have his name even today. In this city, the mathematics Bolyai Farkas and his son Bolyai Janos, the person who created the neeuclidiene geometry. In 1754, the call, named The Board Royal, has been established, where many protagonists of the Revolution of 1848 have continued their studies, including: Avram Iancu (1824-1872) and Alexandru Papiu Ilarian(1828-1878), people who fought for the rights of the Romanians from Transylvania with the Hungarians and the Germans and the end of the slavery.
The most famous Hungarian writer is Petofi Sandor, who died in the revolution of 1848/49, the last days of his life was in Targu Mures. As a modern city, Targu Mures, was born in the second part of the 19th century, among the construction of the railroad. In the same period of time a few fabrics were built in food industry, wood processing industry and leather industry. After the dictate from Vienna, during the years 1940-1944, the north of Transylvania, including Targu Mures, was joined to Hungary. Establishment of communist dictatorship meant in the history of the city and the beginning of the forced industrialization, and parallel to a radical transformation in the appearance of the town the population grew rapidly. There were built many fabrics of chemical profile, food, wood processing, auto and others.
Targu Mures is stiil a strong cultural center. In Targu Mures is a Brach of The Romanian Academy, The Institute of Social-Human Research- Gheorghe Sincai, The University of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Technical and Economical Science, Theatre Academy, Puppets show Theatre.
The architecture of the city- Targu Mures
The oldest architectural construction in the city are the churchs and the fortress. The fortress has a wall with seven bastions, built by the guilds of the city. In the interior, you will find the reformed church, with the features of the Gothic style, which beginnings starts from the year 1492. There are some buildings from the 16th- 17th centuries, which includes those from the Teleki Library and the Royal Table. You will find many churches in the city, some of them are from the 16th-17th centuries. They represent the various religious confessions specific all the cities and Villages from Transylvania: Roman-Catholic, Gospel, Unitarian, Orthodox, Greek-Catholic and others, also the mosaic cult. The wood Orthodox church, built in 1793 and painted in 1814 is unique between the cities in Transylvania.
The Cultural Palace- situated in the center of Targu Mures, is one of the most representative building from Transylvania. Built in the manner of the Lechnerien school,
at the initiative of the mayor Bernady Gyargy, the palace is well-known for the interior decoration and also for the exterior one. From the harmony ensemble, you can visible detach the roof made of faience, the Mosaic monumental and the bas-relief, which is dominated by the frontispiece, also by the interior fresco, and the glass-painted windows, especially the Mirror Hall. The interior entrance is very imposing, 45 meters long, made of marble of Carrara and delimited by two Venetian mirrors. The Cultural Palace hosts many cultural institutions: the State Philharmonic, the County Library, the Art Museum and others.
Teleky-Bolyai Library- The building was built in the years 1799-1804, with the guidance of the lord Teleki Samuel, the founder of the library. The basis of the library is the 40.000 volumes, including the 66 copies of ancient books, and a lot of rare editions and works from the personal collection of the lord.
The National Theatre- Winning the National title in 1978, the theatre is a follower of old traditions. The theatre, which today works in a modern building, has two sections, Romanian and Hungarian. In this town also are: the Theatre Studio, in the Academy of Theatrical Art building, and the Theatre for children and youth Ariel.
Museum of Ethnography and Folk Art- The building, named Toldalagi Palace, after his founder, the lord Toldalagi Laszlal, is one of the most beautiful Baroque palaces from Transylvania. It holds the section of Ethnography and Folk Art from the County Museum Mures, since 1984.
Museum of National Science- It was built in Baroque style, with elements from the Italian renaissance style, for the house of the Hungarian Art Museum. The building shelters today exhibits belonging to the treasury of Mures.